# Decision science class 1

High School Statutory Authority:

The vector x is composed of the features, x1, x2, x3 etc.

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An example tree which estimates the probability of kyphosis after surgery, given the age of the patient and the vertebra at which surgery was started. The same tree is shown in three different ways. Left The colored leaves show the probability of kyphosis after surgery, and percentage of patients in the leaf.

Middle The tree as a perspective plot. Right Aerial view of the middle plot. The probability of kyphosis after surgery is higher in the darker areas. The treatment of kyphosis has advanced considerably since this rather small set of data was collected.

Decision tree types[ edit ] Decision trees used in data mining are of two main types: Classification tree analysis is when the predicted outcome is the class to which the data belongs. Regression tree analysis is when the predicted outcome can be considered a real number e. With increasing the number of samples in nodes and reducing the tree width, decision stream preserves statistically representative data and allows extremely deep graph architecture that can consist of hundreds of levels.

Boosted trees Incrementally building an ensemble by training each new instance to emphasize the training instances previously mis-modeled. A typical example is AdaBoost. These can be used for regression-type and classification-type problems. While less expressive, decision lists are arguably easier to understand than general decision trees due to their added sparsity, permit non-greedy learning methods [10] and monotonic constraints to be imposed.

A decision tree is a flow-chart-like structure, where each internal non-leaf node denotes a test on an attribute, each branch represents the outcome of a test, and each leaf or terminal node holds a class label. The topmost node in a tree is the root node. There are many specific decision-tree algorithms.

Performs multi-level splits when computing classification trees. Statistics-based approach that uses non-parametric tests as splitting criteria, corrected for multiple testing to avoid overfitting. This approach results in unbiased predictor selection and does not require pruning.

Metrics[ edit ] Algorithms for constructing decision trees usually work top-down, by choosing a variable at each step that best splits the set of items. These generally measure the homogeneity of the target variable within the subsets.

Some examples are given below.Decision science. STUDY. decision makers identify the best solution to decision problems. D) describe relationships and influence of various elements in the model. C. Which decision model incorporates the process of optimization? A) predictive B) prescriptive C) descriptive D) normative.

B. North South University is the first private university of Bangladesh, It was established in Approved by the University Grants Commission (UGC) of Bangladesh. The main goal of my Decision Science course is to equip executives or any decision maker with tools to deal with the decision making process.

The course provides us with a systematic, coherent approach to help with problem solving. A Web site designed to increase the extent to which statistical thinking is embedded in management thinking for decision making under uncertainties.

The main thrust of the site is to explain various topics in statistical analysis such as the linear model, hypothesis testing, and central limit theorem.