You can help by adding to it. February Main article: Fractional Reserve Banking When money is deposited in a bank, it can then be lent out to another person.
Hiring labour is different from buying other goods and services, and the contract between the employer and the employee is incomplete. It does not cover what the employer really cares about, which is how hard and well the employee works.
In economics, employment is modelled as a principal the employer interacting with an agent the employee. The principal—agent model can be used to study other relationships with incomplete contracts, such as the interaction between a lender and a borrower.
Firms do not pay the lowest wages possible. They set wages so that employees earn economic rents, to motivate them to work effectively, and stay with the firm. Working together in firms brings mutual gains: But rents also lead to involuntary unemployment in the economy.
Until a single company, Foxconn, produced every iPhone and iPad in factories in China, mainly so that Apple could take advantage of lower costs, including wages.
The components of the iPhone and iPad for the most part do not come from China, but are sourced from around the world. Components such as the flash memory, display module, and touch screen are made by a number of different companies including Toshiba and Sharp in Japan.
Like other firms, Apple makes profits by finding the supplier that can provide inputs at the lowest cost, whether the input is a component or labour, wherever in the world that supplier may be located. The cost of producing the iPhone is far lower than the price Apple charges: It can take place within a multinational company or may involve outsourcing production to other firms.
Apple is not alone in outsourcing or offshoring production to countries that are not the main market for the goods produced. In most manufacturing industries, firms based in rich countries have transferred a significant proportion of production, which was previously done by local employees, to poorer countries where wages are lower.
But Apple and other firms are looking for more than cheap labour. Other industries, particularly garment manufacturing, have relocated primarily to low-wage economies.
Also, in developing countries, additional business costs such as health and safety rules are far lower, and environmental regulations are often less strict. Apple, Samsung, and Toshiba are business organizations called firms. Not everyone is employed in a firm.
For example, many farmers, carpenters, software developers or personal trainers work independently, as neither employee nor employer. While some people work for governments and not-for-profit organizations, the majority of people in rich nations make their living by working in a firm.
Firms are major actors in the economy and we will use this and the next unit to explain how they work. A firm is often referred to as if it were a person: But while firms are actors—and in some legal systems are treated as if they were individuals—firms are also the stage on which the people who make up the firm employees, managers, and owners act out their sometimes common but sometimes competing interests.
We have already seen, in earlier units, the importance of work, and firms, in the economy: Work is how people produce their livelihoods. In deciding how much time to spend working, people face a trade-off between free time and the goods that they can produce, or the wage income that they can earn.
Production, wages, and living standards have grown through the innovation and adoption of new technologies by firms. There are potential gains to all concerned from individuals specializing in tasks for which they have a comparative advantage.Monetary Policy Basics.
Introduction. The term "monetary policy" refers to what the Federal Reserve, the nation's central bank, does to influence the amount of money and credit in the U.S.
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Profile. The District of Columbia, located on the north bank of the Potomac River, is the capital city of United States. The centers of all three branches of the U.S. federal government are. The Implications of Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy to Business.
by Tommy Charles; Updated May 22, Just as with a contracting fiscal policy, a contracting monetary policy is used during times of plenty, and the aim is slightly different.
It’s important to note that there is a lag between policy change and noticeable effects. According to Aderibigbe (), monetary policy is a transmission mechanism which operates policy through the effects of interest of credit on economic agents which respond to different yields of various financial assets, level of aggregates demand, exchange rate overall economic activities.
Economics Social Studies Georgia Performance Standards.