Harvard University Press Reference Library Religious beliefs and practices, which permeated all aspects of life in antiquity, traveled well-worn routes throughout the Mediterranean:
Sumerian religion and Babylonian religion Overview map of ancient Mesopotamia. In the fourth millennium BC, the first evidence for what is recognisably Mesopotamian religion can be seen with the invention in Mesopotamia of writing circa BC.
The people of Mesopotamia originally consisted of two groups, East Semitic Akkadian speakers later divided into the Assyrians and Babylonians and the people of Sumerwho spoke a language isolate.
These peoples were members of various city-states and small kingdoms. The Sumerians left the first records, and are believed to have been the founders of the civilisation of the Ubaid period BC to BC in Upper Mesopotamia.
By historical times they resided in southern Mesopotamia, which was known as Sumer and much later, Babyloniaand had considerable influence on the Akkadian speakers and their culture. The Akkadian speaking Semites are believed to have entered the region at some point between BC and BC, with Akkadian names first appear in the king lists of these states circa 29th century BC.
The Sumerians were advanced: The Sumerians remained largely dominant in this synthesised culture, however, until the rise of the Akkadian Empire under Sargon of Akkad circa BC, which united all of Mesopotamia under one ruler.
The Akkadian Empire endured for two centuries before collapsing due to economic decline, internal strife and attacks from the north east by the Gutian Religions of ancient mesopotamia egypt israel greece.
Assyria had evolved during the 25th century BC, and asserted itself in the north circa BC in the Old Assyrian Empire and southern Mesopotamia fragmented into a number of kingdoms, the largest being Isin, Larsa and Eshnunna. In BC the initially minor city-state of Babylon was founded in the south by invading West Semitic -speaking Amorites.
It was rarely ruled by native dynasties throughout its history. Some time after this period, the Sumerians disappeared, becoming wholly absorbed into the Akkadian-speaking population.
Assyrian kings are attested from the late 25th century BC and dominated northern Mesopotamia and parts of eastern Anatolia and northeast Syria. Circa BC, the Amorite ruler of Babylon, King Hammurabiconquered much of Mesopotamia, but this empire collapsed after his death, and Babylonia was reduced to the small state it had been upon its founding.
The Amorite dynasty was deposed in BC after attacks from mountain-dwelling people known as the Kassites from the Zagros Mountainswho went on to rule Babylon for over years. Assyria, having been the dominant power in the region with the Old Assyrian Empire between the 20th and 18th centuries BC before the rise of Hammurabi, once more became a major power with the Middle Assyrian Empire — BC.
During the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Mesopotamian Aramaic became the lingua franca of the empire, and also Mesopotamia proper. The last written records in Akkadian were astrological texts dating from 78 CE discovered in Assyria.
The empire fell between BC and BC after a period of severe internal civil war in Assyria which soon spread to Babylonia, leaving Mesopotamia in a state of chaos. A weakened Assyria was then subject to combined attacks by a coalition of hitherto vassals, in the form of the BabyloniansChaldeansMedesScythiansPersiansSagartians and Cimmerians beginning in BC.
Babylon had a brief late flowering of power and influence, initially under the migrant Chaldean dynasty, which took over much of the empire formerly held by their northern kinsmen.
However, the last king of Babylonia, Nabonidusan Assyrian, paid little attention to politics, preferring to worship the lunar deity Sinleaving day-to-day rule to his son Belshazzar. This and the fact that the Persians and Medes to the east were growing in power now that the might of Assyria that had held them in vassalage for centuries was gone, spelt the death knell for native Mesopotamian power.
The Achaemenid Empire conquered the Neo-Babylonian Empire in BC, after which the Chaldeans disappeared from history, although Mesopotamian people, culture and religion continued to endure after this.
Effect of Assyrian religious beliefs on its political structure[ edit ] Like many nations in Mesopotamian history, Assyria was originally, to a great extent, an oligarchy rather than a monarchy. Authority was considered to lie with "the city", and the polity had three main centres of power—an assembly of elders, a hereditary ruler, and an eponym.
The ruler presided over the assembly and carried out its decisions. The third centre of power was the eponym limmumwho gave the year his name, similarly to the eponymous archon and Roman consuls of classical antiquity.
He was annually elected by lot and was responsible for the economic administration of the city, which included the power to detain people and confiscate property. However, kingship at the time was linked very closely with the idea of divine mandate.
For the conquered peoples, however, it was novel, particularly to the people of smaller city-states. In time, Ashur was promoted from being the local deity of Assur to the overlord of the vast Assyrian domain, which spread from the Caucasus and Armenia in the north to Egypt, Nubia and the Arabian Peninsula in the south, and from Cyprus and the eastern Mediterranean Sea in the west to central Iran in the east.
Worship was conducted in his name throughout the lands dominated by the Assyrians. With the worship of Assur across much of the Fertile Crescentthe Assyrian king could command the loyalty of his fellow servants of Assur.
This brought to an end over 3, years of Semitic Mesopotamian dominance of the Near East. The Persians maintained and did not interfere in the native culture and religion and Assyria and Babylon continued to exist as entities although Chaldea and the Chaldeans disappearedand Assyria was strong enough to launch major rebellions against Persia in and BC.
During this period the Syriac language and Syriac script evolved in Assyria, and were centuries later to be the vehicle for the spread of Syriac Christianity throughout the near east. Babylonia was dissolved as an entity during the Parthian Empire, though Assyria endured as a geo-political entity until the 7th century AD Arab Islamic conquest.What were the similarities and differences in the geography of ancient Egypt and ancient Mesopotamia?
How do the geographical situations of Ancient Egypt and Ancient Mesopotamia influence their traits, religions, and cultures? Well, among many other “geographical influences”, the fact that both regions are defined by great rivers, which.
3 Ancient Religions of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Organized religion had its beginnings in ancient Mesopotamia (in what is now modern Iraq) and in .
Ancient Religions – Religions of Ancient Mesopotamia Many religions around the world in modern time are still believed and followed by a large portion of the world’s population with the predominant religions being Christianity, Islam and Buddhism.
Many Religions have simply come to a halt and ceased to be believed and followed such as the religions in Ancient Egypt and Ancients Greece. Ancient Israel & Ancient Egypt. Ancient Israel & Ancient Egypt Olivia Nail Osan American High School Although ancient Egypt and ancient Israel are geographically close to each other, their religions are near polar opposites, and this affected their individual cultures immensely.
Ancient Israel’s religion was a conservative monotheistic faith. The . Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices of the civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, particularly Sumer, Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia between circa BC and AD, after which they largely gave way to Syriac Christianity.
The religious development of Mesopotamia and Mesopotamian culture in general was not. Similarities in the Artwork of Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, the Aegean cultures, and Ancient Greece Words | 4 Pages The artworks of Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, the Aegean cultures, and Ancient Greece have similarities that not only reflect objects and images, but also the media, style and representation.